Monday, March 16, 2020

Symbolism of Keys in Bluebeard essays

Symbolism of Keys in Bluebeard essays The use of a key in a literary piece is an important element to symbolize a higher meaning within a story. A key could represent many different meanings. For instance, in the story Bluebeard, the key could represent life or death, knowledge, or the ability to open a whole new dimension within the story. The key signifies a very unique power in the story Bluebeard. When Bluebeard hands the key ring to his wife with the instruction to never utilize the small key to the cellar, he essentially gave her the power of life, knowledge, understanding, and the ability to open a new dimension within the story. In Women Who Run with the Wolves, Clarissa Estes states, The Bluebeard story is about a captor, the dark man who inhabits all womens psyches, the innate predator (pg. 43). Bluebeard ruled his wife from the beginning, he was essentially her captor. Bluebeard gave his wife the freedom to do anything her heart desires, but he still held her captive on his land. When he handed her the key ring and specifically told her not to use the small key he was utilizing his predator powers. It is ironic that in Bluebeard, the captor gives away the key that unlocks the wifes spirit. The key is a symbol of life for the wife and death for Bluebeard. If the woman obeyed her husband and ignored her intuition the key would have symbolized the opposite. The key represents the womans intuitive knowledge to revolt against her husband. If the woman had trusted her intuitive knowledge she wouldnt have freed herself from the arms of her predator. Finally, the key represents the ability to open a new dimension within the story. When the women open the door, the reader can envision a different side of Bluebeard, the dark side. As the story progresses, the reader experiences shifting feelings toward Bluebeard. In ...

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Agenda Setting Theory Introduction

Therefore the main effect of media in agenda setting is telling people not what to think, but what to think of. The policy agenda is the issues that policy makers consider important after the public start to make campaign or petition to show protest against the organizations. Mass Communication plays an important role in our society its purpose is to inform the public about current and past events. Mass communication is defined in â€Å"Mass Media, Mass Culture† as the process whereby professional communicators use technological devices to share messages over great distances to influence large audiences. Within this process the media, which can be a newspaper, a book and television, takes control of the information we see or hear. The media then uses gate keeping  and agenda setting to â€Å"control our access to news, information, and  entertainment† (Wilson 14). Gate keeping is a series of checkpoints  that the news has to go through before it gets to the public. Through this process many people have to  decide whether  or not the news  is to be seen or heard. Some gatekeepers might include reporters, writers, and  editors. After gate keeping comes  agenda setting. Elaboration of the Theory The Agenda-Setting Theory says the media (mainly the news media) aren’t always successful at telling us what to think, but they are quite successful at telling us what to think about. The power of news media is to set a nation’s agenda, to focus public attention on a few key public issues, is an immense and well-documented influence. For example, newspapers provide a host of cues about the salience of the topics in daily news. They will lead story on first page, large headlines and etc. Besides that, television also consider as a mass communication tool. Television offers numerous cues about salience too. Their opening story is on newscast, length of time devoted to the story and etc. As said by Walter Lippmann, Agenda-Setting Theory is â€Å"the world outside the pictures in our heads†. The news media are a primary source of those pictures in our heads about the larger world of public affairs, a world that for most citizens is â€Å"out of reach, out of sight, out of mind. † Agenda setting is divided into two levels where the first level stress on common subject that media thinks the subject is important. The second level decides which part of the subject is important. Both level leads to the concept of agenda setting where the concept is divided into three parts. The first part of the process is the importance of the issues that are going to be discussed in the media. Second, the issues discussed in the media have an impact over the way the public thinks, this is referred as public agenda. Ultimately the public agenda influences the policy agenda. Furthermore, the media agenda affects the public agenda, and the public agenda affects the policy agenda. People would attend only to news and views that didn’t threaten their established beliefs. Agenda-setting will reconfirms the power of the press while still maintaining that individuals were free to choose. The agenda-setting function is a 3 part-process. Firstly, media agenda is the issues discussed in the media. Secondly, public agenda means issues discussed and personally relevant to public. Lastly, policy agenda is the issues that policy makers consider important. Media agenda and public agenda are close to each other. Media agenda is the set of issue addressed by media sources. It is a composite index of media prominence reveled the importance of foreign policy, law and order, fiscal policy, public welfare and civil rights. While public agenda are issues the public consider important. It is the rank of the five issues was identical to the media agenda. The key concept and terms are agenda setting, salience transfer, gatekeeping, framing, priming and determinants of agenda-setting effects. Agenda setting is giving priorities to alternative policy issues but in the early communications studies, shown a mixture about the ability to influence public opinion on the given issue. Salience transfer refers to the capacity of the media to influence the relative importance individuals attached to the policy. Next is gate keeping is a process that control the media content. Framing is the importance and interpretation of people attach to potential items on the public agenda are strongly influenced by how the media present news stories. Priming happen when framing centers on political loading of the presentation of news, it can be conscious and not conscious. Priming basically mean draw attention to certain issue even in a neutral manner. Last but not least is the determinant of agenda-setting effects. Media credibility or also known as media reliance are found that the determinant is weaker than the media exposure and media exposure are more important than media credibility in relation to presidential state of the union addresses. Application of the Theory In Malaysia, one of the case studies was to examine the Malay language newspaper’s media agenda during the general election. (Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, UPM) The study was conducted to examine the use of the Barisan Nasional (BN) manifesto as the media agenda during the general election for the year 1982, 1986, 1990, 1995 and 1999. A model for the study was constructed based on the Agenda Setting Theory. A content analysis was conducted on 50 issues of Utusan Malaysia (UM) and Berita Harian (BH). Throughout the studies, it was found that there were 11 major themes frequently used in the BN manifesto namely: politics, foreign policy, development, economy, social education, security, religion, workers welfare, agriculture and the quality of life. Above were the main themes in the news during the general election for the year of study. The content analysis also found that there were 4461 news with the BN manifesto shown in 11 major news themes with â€Å"politics† in the lead and the â€Å"quality of life† ending the list. It also showed that the BN manifesto was mainly covered in various sections such as the Local News, Foreign News, Special Column, Main Column, Editorial, Advertisement, Economy, Asean, Forum, Articles and others. While the coverage on News, Articles, Photographs, Editorial, Letter to the Editor, Cartoon, Columnist and Comments also showed the present of BN manifesto. There was also a small difference between the two newspapers in terms of its news coverage on the BN manifesto during the general election. The study clearly showed that the media agenda of the two mainstream newspapers in the country was framed by the content of the BN manifesto during the duration of the general election for the year 1982, 1986, 1990, 1995 and 1999 and thus, strengthening the Agenda Setting Theory. The media institution and politic institution are closely linked to each other and are hardly being separated. Both the institutions are interdependent on each other. In Malaysia, we are practicing the democracy system, thus, media are an important instrument to achieve the democracy level; Media play a role in influencing the public in deciding their votes during a general election, either to vote for the specific individual or the party. Besides, media also take control in the politic process as mentioned earlier in the Agenda Setting Theory. In a democratic country like Malaysia, the process in politics often involve media as a tool to spread the news on certain parties’ issues and frame some of the suggestions or views on certain parties or individuals. In order to achieve a country that is practicing democratic system, the general elections were often used as a measurement tool in testing the level of support among the voters toward a specific party. Personal experience interpersonal communication among elites and other individuals So, the process of general election in Malaysia is a very crucial component in a democratic way. There were 12 general elections being held so far in Malaysia which were in the year 1959, 1964, 1969, 1974, 1978, 1982, 1986, 1990, 1995, 1999 and 2004. Also, there were 6 Prime Ministers that have involved themselves in became the main politic communicators in every general election that have been done. Every Prime Minister has their own plans in collaboration with the media to enhance their communication through media, and utilized it in a proper ways. Gatekeepers’ influential media spectacular news events Policy Agenda Public Agenda Media Agenda Real world indications of the importance of an agenda, issue or event Figure 1: Three Main Components in Agenda Setting Process In political communication, media is one of the aspects to be deal with. Others include media agenda, public agenda and policy agenda. All these three main components form a process (Agenda Setting Process) by which a complete political communication is carried out where the media were used to disseminate the messages or information to mass audiences. This process is involved in the Agenda Setting Process and has TWO levels: The media agenda affects the public agenda, and the public agenda affects the policy agenda. The communication using media has done by the politicians to publish their views and news or in this case, the manifesto of Barisan Nasional in Utusan Melaysia and Barita Harian in the media agenda. However, there are existence of gatekeepers that may influence the news and events to be published. In the case studies on BN manifesto, the gatekeepers here would be the editor and the owner of Utusan Malaysia and Berita Harian newspapers publishers. The purposes of having gatekeepers here is to avoid harmful, negative, sensitive or religious issues being discussed which may cause misunderstanding within the nation According to the research, Utusan Malaysia and Berita Harian used media agenda to influence the public, and this has brought the issue to a broader step which is the public agenda, where the public start discussing about the issue. In the case studies, there are some similarities in the manifesto of Barisan Nasional. During the general election, extensive media coverage on the political issues of BN were published continuously especially in the front page of the newspapers being analyzed: Utusan Malaysia and Berita Harian. Those issues are similar to the manifesto of BN. Therefore, the public can gain most of the information about BN from the newspaper than the other party. After the public has start discussing about the issue, which is the involvement of BN’s manifesto in both the newspapers being mentioned, there were some activists who tried to support or banned the manifesto. The real world indicator will decide the importance of the agenda itself. Then, through the personal experiences and interpersonal communications among the elites and other individuals, there might be changes in the policy agenda. Finally, the policy agenda causes the media agenda to publish about the news and information all over again. The Agenda Setting Process will be repeated. ————————————————- Strengths and Weakness of the Theory We found that agenda setting theory has three strengths. First, agenda setting theory has explanatory power. Because this theory explains why most of the people prioritize the same issues as important. Therefore, most of the people will discuss the same issues at the same time. They will also concentrate discuss the issues because they think that the issues are affecting them. Second, this theory also has predictive power as it predicts that if people are exposed to the same media, they will feel the same issues as important. For example, if one issue be the headline of all the newspapers for one week, people will feel that this issue is very important and it will affect their life. Furthermore, this theory has organizing power because it helps organize existing knowledge of media effects. There are also weaknesses, such as media users may not be as ideal as the theory assumes. People may not be well-informed, deeply engaged in public affairs, thoughtful and skeptical. Media just tell them what to think about the issues. People just know the appearance of the issues and not deeply engage in the issues. They will also think that are the issues reported correct or the media have hide something bad that they do not know about the issues. So, some of the people do not trust what the media have said. Instead, people may pay only casual and intermittent attention to public affairs and remain ignorant of the details. For people who have made up their minds, the effect is weakened. News media cannot create or conceal problems; they may only alter the awareness, priorities and salience people attached to a set of problems. Research has largely been inconclusive in establishing a casual relationship between public salience and media coverage. Suggestions to Improve on the Theory For communication theory to be adopted by researchers and remain viable, it must be able to survive and grow through its ability to adapt to changing environments, encourage further research, and serve as a foundation for studies beyond those in which the founders originally applied their theory. According to McCombs and Shaw (1972) the result of their study shows that fewer voters knew about specific issues. While they found out that media were often effective in raising awareness of issues with undecided voters. They also found that issues presented by media that were new to audiences were better received by the public than issues with which the public was already familiar. The key factor to the ability of media to have an agenda-setting effect upon their audiences depends on the desire of the viewers to become informed about the issues. For example, when the voters wants to know more about their ideal government leaders the public have to search for more information about the leaders and the party as the desired for them to become informed on the issues instills a strong motivation factors for the public’s. Although the theory may seem to be acceptable but the theory still have its own weaknesses and failure which are visible and need to be improved. For example, while the article concentrate on the presentation of the issues during the election campaigns, the willingness of voters to listen to issues presented by the media, they fail to examine the degree to which mass media is able to raise issues and attract information-seeking audiences on its own but they fail to examine the degree of how the mass media is able to heightened public interest of political issues during election seasons to perform an agenda-setting function. Besides that, the media agenda in agenda-setting theory have their own limitations, as media may not be as ideal as the theory assumes. The information from the media may not deliver appropriately, deeply engaged in public affairs, thoughtful and skeptical. Therefore to improve the theory effectiveness of the theory, the media should increase the understanding of the issues by reporting a more detail information about the election with wide range of information. In addition, the media can also carry out a survey to understand better the level of absorption information of the readers, listeners and viewers. The media should also aware of the public acceptance and understanding of the issues as the agenda-setting theory has its own limitations in dispersing the news. Conclusion In conclusion, the Agenda Setting Theory is a very important practice in media industry especially in a democratic country like Malaysia. The media collaborate with government to control what to be think and discussed among the public. The purpose is to shape their perception over certain issues. It can be from a political issue to welfare issue. This theory proved that whatever issue has been discussed shape the importance of that specific issue and bring to the discussion in the public as in the public agenda. If the public or majorities think that there are some dissatisfactions or objections going on, there will be changes in the policy agenda. Thus, agenda setting is a very important tool in media even though there are still some weaknesses in this practice. So, the media should take in to account to improve their practice by injecting more information not only to a specific area but make it more widely than today in order for the public to have more knowledge about our nation and this may create a more critical thinking nation. References Agenda-Setting Theory – Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw(n. d. ). Retrieved July 30, 2010, from http://www. ninosoriadeveyra. com/uploads/3/0/1/1/3011660/agenda-setting_ justine_kate_gian. ppt. Agenda-Setting Theory: Presentation paper abstracts (n. . ). Retrieved July 30, 2010, from http://realhomepages. com/wecapps/agenda%20setting. htm Agenda-Setting Theory: Strengths and weaknesses of theory (n. d. ). Retrieved July 30, 2010, from http://www. servinghistory. com/topics/Agenda-setting_theory::sub::Strengths_And_ Weaknesses_Of_Theory Garson, G. D. (2006). Agenda setting theory. Retrieved July 30, 2010, from http://faculty. chass. ncsu. edu/garson/PA765/agendasetting. htm Media Tenor Innovatio – Agenda setting theory (n. d. ). Retrieved July 30, 2010, from http:// www. agendasetting. com/res_theory. php M. Sanchez Spring 2002. (2002). Retrieved July 30, 2010, from http://zimmer. csufresno. edu/~ johnca/spch100/7-4-agenda. htm Spring 2001 theory workbook. (2001). Retrieved July 30, 2010, from http://www. uky. edu/~ drlane/capstone/mass/agenda. htm The Agenda-Setting Role of the Mass Media in the Shaping of Public Opinion (n. d. ). Retrieved July 30, 2010 from http://www. infoamerica. org/documentos_pdf/mccombs01. pdf

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Why Death Penalty Should Be Abandoned Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Why Death Penalty Should Be Abandoned - Essay Example First, the death penalty puts innocent lives at risk. The above is so due to inadequate legal presentation in court. As a result even though not guiltily, some end up in death penalty thus losing their lives for mistakes not done. In the US, since 1976, about 138 innocent people have been saved from death row. Also, one the most frequent causes of reversals in capital punishment cases is ineffective assistance of counsel. For instance, a study at Columbia University showed that 68% of death penalty cases were reversed on appeal, due to inadequate defense. Accordingly, to execute an innocent person is morally reprehensible thus a risk that should not be taken. Also despite the fact that the U.S. Supreme Court has said that people with mental retardation should not be persecuted, research has shown that one percent of those executed in the US since 1977 are mentally ill. Many mentally ill defendants are unable to take part in their trials in an efficient way and appear un-engaged, cold , and unfeeling before the jury. Some are even forcefully medicated to make them competent to for execution (Haines,1999). Second, Racism and social class inequality also plays a role in the provision of the death penalty. Research has indicated that injustice is practiced on race and social class, as far as the death sentence provision is concerned.

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Service recovery Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Service recovery - Essay Example The first thing that a service provider should do is take the whole responsibility for the breakdown (hope and Muhlemann). For example, instead of saying, â€Å"It was not our fault†, he should say, â€Å"We are sorry and we shall see what we can do.† Apologies are a very important part of system recovery. He should make the customer feel that he is being understood and will be attended. Next, he should take immediate actions to solve the problem, and should call back the customer every now and then so that he does not feel that he is being kept waiting. If the client is too hard, the provider can use sentences like, â€Å"What can we do to make you comfortable?† How a provider deals with a difficult client is very important for a successful service recovery. A follow up call is very central after the system has been recovered to help maintain the stability of the relationship with the client. Works Cited Fitzsimmons, James A., and Mona J. Fitzsimmons. Service Ma nagement: Operations, Strategy, and Information Technology. USA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2006. Hope, Christine, and Alan Muhlemann. Service Operations Management: Strategy, Design, and Delivery. USA: Prentice Hall, 1997.

Friday, January 24, 2020

Kyd’s The Spanish Tragedy - The Humanist Chronotope Essay -- Spanish T

Kyd’s The Spanish Tragedy - The Humanist Chronotope In "Forms of Time and of the Chronotope in the Novel," Mikhail Bakhtin defines the chronotope as "the intrinsic connectedness of temporal and spatial relationships that are artistically expressed in literature" (84). That is what the chronotope is; Bakhtin continues with what the chrontope does: "It can even be said that it is precisely the chronotope that defines genre and generic distinctions" (85). In The Spanish Tragedy, Kyd layers three chronotopic zones to create a new chronotope, the "humanist chronotope," which in turn creates a unique dramatic genre, one we might call "humanist drama." According to Bakhtin, two seminal chronotopes from classical literature form the basis of most later chronotopes. The first of these seminal chronotopes is the adventure chronotope, found in romance narratives such as Longus’s Daphnis and Chloe. Time in this chronotope is a random and non-causal chain of events characterized by "suddenly" and "at just that moment" that ends at the same point in biographical time at which it began. Time is thus infinite, reversible, and extratemporal; it is also governed by chance, and therefore, Bakhtin writes, "The initiative in this time does not belong to human beings" (95). Extratemporal time requires "extraspatial" space that is abstract rather than concrete, as a concrete space, argues Bakhtin, would limit the power of chance. Adventure space is also alien space: a familiar world would also leave traces that would limit the chance that drives time in the romance. Apuleius’s The Golden Ass exemplifies the second seminal chronotope: the adventure-everyday chronotope, a hybrid, as the name suggests, of the abstract adventure chronotope and a ... a dumb show, so too will the audience understand the idea after the performance of The Spanish Tragedy. Kyd’s "humanist chronotope" thus places drama at the center of humanist learning: yet it is as a spectator, not as an actor or playwright, that one becomes a humanist. WORKS CITED Bakhtin, M.M. "Forms of Time and of the Chronotope in the Novel: Notes toward a Historical Poetics." Michael Holquist, ed. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M.M. Bakhtin. Trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin: U of Texas P, 1981. 84-258. Freeman, Arthur. Thomas Kyd: Facts and Problems. Oxford: Clarendon, 1967. Kyd, Thomas. The Spanish Tragedy. J.R. Mulryne, ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 1989. Mann, Nicholas. "The Origins of Humanism." Jill Kraye, ed. The Cambridhe Companion to Renaissance Humanism. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996. 1-19.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Life & Work of Dr. Maria Montessori Essay

Birth & Family: Montessori was born in Ancona, Italy. Her father, Alessandro Montessori, 33 years old at the time, was an official of the Ministry of Finance. Her mother, Renilde Stoppani, 25 years old, was well educated for the times and was probably related to Italian geologist and paleontologist. While she did not have any particular mentor, she was very close to her mother who readily encouraged her. She also had a loving relationship with her father, although he disagreed with her choice to continue her education. Education: Maria herself proved remarkably talented. She was a confident and strong-minded lady who excelled in school by the role of leader in different games and conversations. At the age of thirteen she got admission in a technical school, a thing considered off-limits to females at that time. She scored high marks that when she graduated, in 1886; she was able to enter in the Regio Istituto Tecnico Leonardo da Vinci. Here she studied math, natural sciences, and languages, again excelling beyond all expectations. It was here too that she became fascinated with the biological sciences, and began to dream of pursuing a career in medicine. Despite her gender, she was allowed to study medicine. When she presented her thesis in 1896, her absolute brilliance so impressed the all-male board of review that they awarded her a medical degree, making her Italy’s first woman doctor. After this accomplishment she was promoted to surgical assistant at Santo Spirito, where she had worked previously as medical assistant. As a physician, Montessori specialized in pediatrics and the new field of psychiatry. She continued research at the University of Rome, joining the university staff in 1897. She became interested in psychology and human behavior, and in 1900, at the elapse of just a short span of four years after her degree in medicine, she accepted a professorship in anthropology at the University of Rome. Work of Dr. Maria Montessori: After accepting a professorship in anthropology, Montessori researched & worked on so-called â€Å"phrenasthenic† children—in modern terms, children experiencing some form of mental retardation, illness, or disability. She also began to travel, study, speak, and publish nationally and internationally, coming to prominence as an advocate for women’s rights and education for mentally disabled children. In Rome during this time, children who were considered mentally deficient were sending in asylums. Montessori’s early observations of these asylum children formed a crucial element of her theory that would later influence many people. She observed children who use to crawl on the floor to grab crumbs of bread after mealtime and realized that â€Å"not all children developed through phases of life in the same way.† Her initial focus was to rehabilitate mentally retarded children, with behavioral problems, orphans, and the desperately poor. Montessori’s early efforts were so surprisingly successful that she soon had a large following, not only of parents desperate for her help, but of teachers desperate to learn her methods. Montessori was much influenced by the earlier work on child development and psychology, in particular research conducted by Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard and Edouard Seguin. Their experiments & research were a source of inspiration for Montessori who believed that â€Å"mental deficiency presented chiefly a pedagogical, rather than mainly a medical problem†. Satisfied with the fact that so-called â€Å"mentally deficient† children could learn the same things as normal children, sometimes at a faster pace or by attaining a higher mastery level, Montessori began to focus on working directly with normal children in the field of education. The opportunity to work with normal children came to her in 1907, when she was offered the position of a medical director for a day-care center that was being organized for working-class children who were too young to attend public schools. Casa Dei Bambini (House of Children) The 1st day-care center, named Casa dei Bambini (House of Children) was located in the worst slum district San Lorenzo in Rome on January 6, 1907, & the conditions Montessori faced were atrocious. Its purpose was to provide a space for pre-school age children who were damaging and destroying the houses while their parents were at work. Montessori believed in taking the time to learn from the children, as she herself learned through her observations of the children in the asylums. As Montessori herself wrote, â€Å"I merely wanted to study the children’s reactions. I asked not to interfere with them in any way as otherwise I would not be able to observe them.† Montessori surprised when she saw children’s lack of interest in the toys or the drawing materials and their keen interest in the educational materials. Each educational material had some carefully planned objective that was pre-determined by Montessori. â€Å"Liberty of the pupil† was fundamental met hod according to her. The spread of Montessori education in Italy The first Casa dei Bambini was a success, and a second was opened on April 7, 1907. The children in her programs continued to exhibit concentration, attention, and spontaneous self-discipline and the classrooms began to attract the attention of prominent educators, journalists, and public figures. Three more Case dei Bambini opened in 1908, and in 1909 Italian Switzerland began to replace Froebellian methods with Montessori in orphanages and kindergartens. International Recognition and Growth of Montessori Education As early as 1909, Montessori’s work began to attract the attention of international observers and visitors. Her work was widely published internationally, and spread rapidly. By the end of 1911, Montessori education had been officially adopted in public schools in Italy and Switzerland, and was planned for the United Kingdom. By 1912, Montessori schools had opened in Paris and many other Western European cities, and were planned for Argentina, Australia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Switzerland, Syria, the United States, and New Zealand. Public programs in London, Johannesburg, Rome, and Stockholm had adopted the method in their school systems. Montessori societies were founded in the United States as AMI (the Montessori American Committee) and the United Kingdom (the Montessori Society for the United Kingdom). Maria Montessori’s writings were also being translated to different languages. She was continually giving lectures around the world where she is always welcomed. She also continued her research and application of her principles to school aged and preschool aged children as well as infants from birth. Her research about the child’s early years is written in â€Å"Absorbent Mind† (1949). Alternatively she also took notice of the social possibilities based on the idea that â€Å"true education is an armament of peace†. In 1939 she flew to India where she met Mahatma Gandhi. In 1949 she addressed UNESCO where she received an ovation. She was honored with the Legione d’Honneur and received an honorary of Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Amsterdam. Awards and Recognition: Montessori truly deserved and referred to as a lady much ahead of her time. She was a true pioneer of a modern education system. She was honored by many countries with royal, civic and academic awards and was nominated three times for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1949, 1950 and 1951. Regarding her work and efforts in educational sector her picture was on Italian 200 lire coin and in 1990 on the 1000 lire bill. Montessori’s Death: Maria Montessori died in the Netherlands on May 6, 1952 aged 81. Her name always lives through the method of teaching that she introduced because she said once that, â€Å"I did not invent a method of education, I simply gave some little children a chance to live†. She was truly a woman ahead of her time.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Recent Legal History of the Death Penalty in America

The death penalty, also known as capital punishment, is the government-sanctioned execution of a person sentenced to death by a court of law as punishment for a crime. Crimes that can be punished by the death penalty are known as capital crimes and include serious offenses such as murder, aggravated rape, child rape, child sexual abuse, terrorism, treason, espionage, sedition, piracy, aircraft hijacking, drug trafficking and drug dealing, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. Currently, 56 countries, including the United States allow their courts to impose the death penalty, while 106 countries have enacted laws abolishing it completely. Eight countries sanction the death penalty in special circumstances such as war crimes, and 28 countries have abolished it in practice. As in the United States, the death penalty is a matter of controversy. The United Nations has now adopted five non-binding resolutions calling for a global moratorium on the death penalty, calling for its eventual abolition worldwide. While most countries have abolished it, over 60% of the world’s population live countries where the death penalty is allowed. China is believed to execute more people than all other countries combined. The Death Penalty in the United States While the death penalty has been an integral part of the American judicial system since the colonial period, when a person could be executed for offenses like witchcraft or stealing grapes, the modern history of American execution has been shaped largely by political reaction to public opinion. Between 1977 and 2017—the latest year available in U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics data—34 states executed 1,462 people. The Texas state criminal correctional system accounts for 37% of all executions. Voluntary Moratorium: 1967-1972 While all but 10 states allowed the death penalty in the late 1960s, and an average of 130 executions per year were being carried out, public opinion turned sharply against the death penalty. Several other nations had dropped the death penalty by the early 1960s and legal authorities in the U.S. were starting to question whether or not executions represented cruel and unusual punishments under the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Public support for the death penalty reached its lowest point in 1966, when a Gallup poll showed only 42% of Americans approved of the practice. Between 1967 and 1972, the U.S. observed what amounted to a voluntary moratorium on executions as the U.S. Supreme Court wrestled with the issue. In several cases not directly testing its constitutionality, the Supreme Court modified the application and administration of the death penalty. The most significant of these cases dealt with juries in capital cases. In a 1971 case, the Supreme Court upheld the unrestricted right of juries to both determine guilt or innocence of the accused and to impose the death penalty in a single trial. Supreme Court Overturns Most Death Penalty Laws In the 1972 case of Furman v. Georgia, the Supreme Court issued a 5-4 decision effectively striking down most federal and state death penalty laws finding them arbitrary and capricious. The court held that the death penalty laws, as written, violated the cruel and unusual punishment provision of the Eighth Amendment and the due process guarantees of the Fourteenth Amendment. As a result of Furman v. Georgia, more than 600 prisoners who had been sentenced to death between 1967 and 1972 had their death sentences commuted.   Supreme Court Upholds New Death Penalty Laws The Supreme Courts decision in Furman v. Georgia did not rule the death penalty itself to be unconstitutional, only the specific laws by which it was applied. Thus, the states quickly began to write new death penalty laws designed to comply with the courts ruling. The first of the new death penalty laws created by the states of Texas, Florida and Georgia gave the courts wider discretion in applying the death penalty for specific crimes and provided for the current bifurcated trial system, in which a first trial determines guilt or innocence and a second trial determines punishment. The Texas and Georgia laws allowed the jury to decide punishment, while Floridas law left the punishment up to the trial judge. In five related cases, the Supreme Court upheld various aspects of the new death penalty laws. These cases were: Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153 (1976)Jurek v. Texas, 428 U.S. 262 (1976)Proffitt v. Florida, 428 U.S. 242 (1976)Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280 (1976)Roberts v. Louisiana, 428 U.S. 325 (1976) As a result of these decisions, 21 states threw out their old mandatory death penalty laws and hundreds of death row prisoners had their sentences changed to life in prison. Execution Resumes On January 17, 1977, convicted murderer Gary Gilmore told a Utah firing squad, Lets do it! and became the first prisoner since 1976 executed under the new death penalty laws. A total of 85 prisoners - 83 men and two women - in 14 U.S. states were executed during 2000. Current Status of the Death Penalty As of January 1, 2015, the death penalty was legal in 31 states: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming. Nineteen states and the District of Columbia have abolished the death penalty: Alaska, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. Between the reinstatement of the death penalty in 1976 and 2015, executions have been carried out in thirty-four states. From 1997 to 2014, Texas led all death penalty-legal states, carrying out a total of 518 executions, far ahead of Oklahoma’s 111, Virginia’s 110, and Florida’s 89. Detailed statistics on executions and capital punishment can be found on the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ Capital Punishment website.